DSAs are neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the ability to read, write and calculate correctly and fluently that occur at the beginning of schooling.
Depending on the type of problems, the DSA is divided into:
specific reading disorder that manifests as a difficulty in decoding the text;
specific disorder of writing that is manifested by difficulties in orthographic and Phonographic competences;
Handwriting specific disorder that manifests as a difficulty in the ability of writing motor;
specific disorder of understanding and working with numbers.
These disorders depend on different modes of operation of neural networks involved in the processes of reading, writing and arithmetic.
They are not caused either by a lack of intelligence nor by environmental problems, neither by psychological or sensory deficits.